The passive optical network (PON) is an unpowered broadband telecom network which is based entirely on telecom passive devices from the central office (CO) to optical network terminal (ONT) at the end-user side.
Normally, PON is using point-to-multipoint (P2MP) fibre optic connections that include optical line terminals (OLT), fibre distribution frames (FDF), fibre patch panels, optical splitters, optical fibre distribution hubs, and optical network terminals (ONT)
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Desire2Learn Incorporated (D2L) was found by John Baker in 1999 (headquarters in Kitchener, ON). Actually, D2L has many branches around the world. (US, Australia, UK and Brazil). D2L is based on e-Learning Management Systems (LMS) which combines the state-of-the-art e-learning software platform with different predictive analytic techniques to support student efforts.
Likewise, D2L is able to integrate several e-learning platforms (K-12 to Enterprise) enriched with smart tools and resources needed for bringing flexibility and customized e-learning experience.
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Machine to machine (M2M) refers to data communications (wireless/wired) between two or more smart electronic devices/machines. Many utility, drilling, oil and gas companies have been using M2M communications in the field to collect, assess, and setup process variables as part of the advanced control and monitoring systems. However, several high-tech manufactures are working together in order to standardize the Messaging Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol as an OASIS standard protocol for the Machine-to-Machine (M2M)/Internet of Things (IoT).
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